Drugs of Abuse

A powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the coca plant native to South America.

Street Name: Blow, Bump, C, Candy, Charlie, Coke, Crack, Flake, Rock, Snow, Toot
Commercial Names: Cocaine hydrochloride topical solution (anaesthetic rarely used in medical procedures)
Common Forms: White powder, whitish rock crystal
Common Ways Taken: Snorted, smoked, injected

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Narrowed blood vessels; enlarged pupils; increased body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure; headache; abdominal pain and nausea; euphoria; increased energy, alertness; insomnia, restlessness; anxiety; erratic and violent behaviour, panic attacks, paranoia, psychosis; heart rhythm problems, heart attack; stroke, seizure, coma.

Long-term: Loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds, nasal damage and trouble swallowing from snorting; infection and death of bowel tissue from decreased blood flow; poor nutrition and weight loss from decreased appetite.

Other Health-related Issues: Pregnancy: premature delivery, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Greater risk of overdose and sudden death than from either drug alone.

Withdrawal Symptoms:  Depression, tiredness, increased appetite, insomnia, vivid unpleasant dreams, slowed thinking and movement, restlessness.

A depressant approved for use in the treatment of narcolepsy, a disorder that causes daytime "sleep attacks."

Street Name: G, Georgia Home Boy, Goop, Grievous Bodily Harm, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, Soap, Scoop
Commercial Names: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate or sodium oxybate (Xyrem®)
Common Forms: Colourless liquid, white powder
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed (often combined with alcohol or other beverages)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Euphoria, drowsiness, decreased anxiety, confusion, memory loss, hallucinations, excited and aggressive behaviour, nausea, vomiting, unconsciousness, seizures, slowed heart rate and breathing, lower body temperature, coma, death.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Sometimes used as a date rape drug.

In Combination with Alcohol: Nausea, problems with breathing, greatly increased depressant effects.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Insomnia, anxiety, tremors, sweating, increased heart rate and blood pressure, psychotic thoughts.

Drugs that cause profound distortions in a person’s perceptions of reality, such as ketamine, LSD, mescaline (peyote), PCP, psilocybin, salvia, DMT, and ayahuasca.

Street Name: Brown sugar, China White, Dope, H, Horse, Junk, Skag, Skunk, Smack, White Horse With OTC cold medicine and antihistamine: Cheese
Commercial Names: No commercial uses
Common Forms: White or brownish powder, or black sticky substance known as “black tar heroin”
Common Ways Taken: Injected, smoked, snorted

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Euphoria; warm flushing of skin; dry mouth; heavy feeling in the hands and feet; clouded thinking; alternate wakeful and drowsy states; itching; nausea; vomiting; slowed breathing and heart rate.

Long-term: Collapsed veins; abscesses (swollen tissue with pus); infection of the lining and valves in the heart; constipation and stomach cramps; liver or kidney disease; pneumonia.

Other Health-related Issues: Pregnancy: miscarriage, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome.

In Combination with Alcohol: Dangerous slowdown of heart rate and breathing, coma, death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhoea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), leg movements.

Solvents, aerosols, and gases found in household products such as spray paints, markers, glues, and cleaning fluids; also nitrites (e.g., amyl nitrite), which are prescription medications for chest pain.

Street Name: Poppers, snappers, whippets, laughing gas
Commercial Names: Various
Common Forms: Paint thinners or removers, degreasers, dry-cleaning fluids, gasoline, lighter fluids, correction fluids, permanent markers, electronics cleaners and freeze sprays, glue, spray paint, hair or deodorant sprays, fabric protector sprays, aerosol computer cleaning products, vegetable oil sprays, butane lighters, propane tanks, whipped cream aerosol containers, refrigerant gases, ether, chloroform, halothane, nitrous oxide
Common Ways Taken: Inhaled through the nose or mouth

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Confusion; nausea; slurred speech; lack of coordination; euphoria; dizziness; drowsiness; disinhibition, lightheadedness, hallucinations/delusions; headaches; sudden sniffing death due to heart failure (from butane, propane, and other chemicals in aerosols); death from asphyxiation, suffocation, convulsions or seizures, coma, or choking. Nitrites: enlarged blood vessels, enhanced sexual pleasure, increased heart rate, brief sensation of heat and excitement, dizziness, headache.

Long-term: Liver and kidney damage; bone marrow damage; limb spasms due to nerve damage; brain damage from lack of oxygen that can cause problems with thinking, movement, vision, and hearing. Nitrites: increased risk of pneumonia.

Other Health-related Issues: Pregnancy: low birth weight, bone problems, delayed behavioural development due to brain problems, altered metabolism and body composition.

In Combination with Alcohol: Nitrites: dangerously low blood pressure.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Nausea, loss of appetite, sweating, tics, problems sleeping, and mood changes.

A dissociative drug used as an anaestheticsin veterinary practice. Dissociative drugs are hallucinogens that cause the user to feel detached from reality.

Street Name: Cat Valium, K, Special K, Vitamin K
Commercial Names: Ketalar®
Common Forms: Liquid, white powder
Common Ways Taken: Injected, snorted, smoked (powder added to tobacco or marijuana cigarettes), swallowed

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Problems with attention, learning, and memory; dreamlike states, hallucinations; sedation; confusion and problems speaking; loss of memory; problems moving, to the point of being immobile; raised blood pressure; unconsciousness; slowed breathing that can lead to death.

Long-term: Ulcers and pain in the bladder; kidney problems; stomach pain; depression; poor memory.

Other Health-related Issues: Sometimes used as a date rape drug. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Increased risk of adverse effects.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Unknown.

Pronounced "cot," a shrub (Catha edulis) found in East Africa and southern Arabia; contains the psychoactive chemicals cathinone and cathine. People from African and Arabian regions (up to an estimated 20 million worldwide) have used khat for centuries as part of cultural tradition and for its stimulant-like effects.

Street Name: Abyssinian Tea, African Salad, Catha, Chat, Kat, Oat
Commercial Names: No commercial uses
Common Forms: Fresh or dried leaves
Common Ways Taken: Chewed, brewed as tea

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Euphoria, increased alertness and arousal, increased blood pressure and heart rate, depression, inability to concentrate, irritability, loss of appetite, insomnia.

Long-term: Tooth decay and gum disease; gastrointestinal disorders such as constipation, ulcers, stomach inflammation, and increased risk of upper gastrointestinal tumors; cardiovascular disorders such as irregular heartbeat, decreased blood flow, and heart attack.

Other Health-related Issues: In rare cases associated with heavy use: psychotic reactions such as fear, anxiety, grandiose delusions (fantastical beliefs that one has superior qualities such as fame, power, and wealth), hallucinations, and paranoia.

In Combination with Alcohol: Unknown.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Depression, nightmares, trembling, and lack of energy.

A hallucinogen manufactured from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains. LSD is an abbreviation of the scientific name lysergic acid diethylamide.

Street Name: Acid, Blotter, Blue Heaven, Cubes, Microdot, Yellow Sunshine
Commercial Names: No commercial uses
Common Forms: Tablet; capsule; clear liquid; small, decorated squares of absorbent paper that liquid has been added to
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, absorbed through mouth tissues (paper squares)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Rapid emotional swings; distortion of a person’s ability to recognize reality, think rationally, or communicate with others; raised blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature; dizziness and insomnia; loss of appetite; dry mouth; sweating; numbness; weakness; tremors; enlarged pupils.

Long-term: Frightening flashbacks (called Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder [HPPD]); ongoing visual disturbances, disorganized thinking, paranoia, and mood swings.

Other Health-related Issues: Unknown.

In Combination with Alcohol: May decrease the perceived effects of alcohol.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Unknown.

Marijuana is made from the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. The main psychoactive (mind-altering) chemical in marijuana is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC.

Street Name: Blunt, Bud, Dope, Ganja, Grass, Green, Herb, Joint, Mary Jane, Pot, Reefer, Sinsemilla, Skunk, Smoke, Trees, Weed; Hashish: Boom, Gangster, Hash, Hemp
Commercial Names: Various brand names in states where the sale of marijuana is legal
Common Forms: Greenish-gray mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and/or flowers; resin (hashish) or sticky, black liquid (hash oil)
Common Ways Taken: Smoked, eaten (mixed in food or brewed as tea)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Enhanced sensory perception and euphoria followed by drowsiness/relaxation; slowed reaction time; problems with balance and coordination; increased heart rate and appetite; problems with learning and memory; hallucinations; anxiety; panic attacks; psychosis.

Long-term: Mental health problems, chronic cough, frequent respiratory infections.

Other Health-related Issues: Youth: possible loss of IQ points when repeated use begins in adolescence. Pregnancy: babies born with problems with attention, memory, and problem solving.

In Combination with Alcohol: Increased heart rate, blood pressure; further slowing of mental processing and reaction time.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Irritability, trouble sleeping, decreased appetite, anxiety.

A synthetic, psychoactive drug that has similarities to both the stimulant amphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline. MDMA is an abbreviation of the scientific name 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine.

Street Name: Adam, Clarity, Eve, Lover's Speed, Peace, Uppers
Commercial Names: No commercial uses
Common Forms: Colorful tablets with imprinted logos, capsules, powder, liquid
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, snorted

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Lowered inhibition; enhanced sensory perception; confusion; depression; sleep problems; anxiety; increased heart rate and blood pressure; muscle tension; teeth clenching; nausea; blurred vision; faintness; chills or sweating; sharp rise in body temperature leading to liver, kidney, or heart failure and death.

Long-term: Long-lasting confusion, depression, problems with attention, memory, and sleep; increased anxiety, impulsiveness, aggression; loss of appetite; less interest in sex.

Other Health-related Issues: Unknown.

In Combination with Alcohol: May increase the risk of cell and organ damage.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Fatigue, loss of appetite, depression, trouble concentrating.

A hallucinogen found in disk-shaped “buttons” in the crown of several cacti, including peyote.

Street Name: Buttons, Cactus, Mesc
Commercial Names: No commercial uses
Common Forms: Fresh or dried buttons, capsule
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed (chewed or soaked in water and drunk)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Enhanced perception and feeling; hallucinations; euphoria; anxiety; increased body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure; sweating; problems with movement.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Unknown.

In Combination with Alcohol: Unknown.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Unknown.

An extremely addictive stimulant amphetamine drug.

Street Name: An extremely addictive stimulant amphetamine drug.
Commercial Names: Desoxyn®
Common Forms: White powder or pill; crystal meth looks like pieces of glass or shiny blue-white “rocks” of different sizes
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, snorted, smoked, injected

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Increased wakefulness and physical activity; decreased appetite; increased breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature; irregular heartbeat.

Long-term: Anxiety, confusion, insomnia, mood problems, violent behavior, paranoia, hallucinations, delusions, weight loss, severe dental problems (“meth mouth”), intense itching leading to skin sores from scratching.

Other Health-related Issues: Pregnancy: premature delivery; separation of the placenta from the uterus; low birth weight; lethargy; heart and brain problems. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Masks the depressant effect of alcohol, increasing risk of alcohol overdose; may increase blood pressure and jitters.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Depression, anxiety, tiredness.

Psychoactive when taken in higher-than-recommended amounts.

Street Name: Robotripping, Robo, Triple C
Commercial Names: Various (many brand names include “DM”)
Common Forms: Syrup, capsule
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Euphoria; slurred speech; increased heart rate, blood pressure, temperature; numbness; dizziness; nausea; vomiting; confusion; paranoia; altered visual perceptions; problems with movement; buildup of excess acid in body fluids.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Breathing problems, seizures, and increased heart rate may occur from other ingredients in cough/cold medicines.

In Combination with Alcohol: Increased risk of adverse effects.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Unknown.

A dissociative drug developed as an intravenous anaesthetic that has been discontinued due to serious adverse effects. Dissociative drugs are hallucinogens that cause the user to feel detached from reality. PCP is an abbreviation of the scientific name, phencyclidine.

Street Name: Angel Dust, Boat, Hog, Love Boat, Peace Pill
Commercial Names: No commercial uses
Common Forms: White or colored powder, tablet, or capsule; clear liquid
Common Ways Taken: Injected, snorted, swallowed, smoked (powder added to mint, parsley, oregano, or marijuana)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, problems thinking, a sense of distance from one’s environment, anxiety. Low doses: slight increase in breathing rate; increased blood pressure and heart rate; shallow breathing; face redness and sweating; numbness of the hands or feet; problems with movement. High doses: lowered blood pressure, pulse rate, breathing rate; nausea; vomiting; blurred vision; flicking up and down of the eyes; drooling; loss of balance; dizziness; violence; suicidal thoughts; seizures, coma, and death.

Long-term: Memory loss, problems with speech and thinking, depression, weight loss, anxiety.

Other Health-related Issues: PCP has been linked to self-injury. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Increased risk of coma.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Headaches, sweating.

Pain relievers with an origin similar to that of heroin. Opioids can cause euphoria and are often used nonmedically, leading to overdose deaths.

Street Name: Captain Cody, Cody, Lean, Schoolboy, Sizzurp, Purple Drank With gluteth- imide: Doors & Fours, Loads, Pancakes and Syrup
Commercial Names: Codeine (various brand names)
Common Forms: Tablet, capsule, liquid
Common Ways Taken: Injected, swallowed (often mixed with soda and flavorings)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Pain relief, drowsiness, nausea, constipation, euphoria, confusion, slowed breathing, death.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Pregnancy: Miscarriage, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome. Older adults: higher risk of accidental misuse or abuse because many older adults have multiple prescriptions, increasing the risk of drug-drug interactions, and breakdown of drugs slows with age; also, many older adults are treated with prescription medications for pain. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Dangerous slowing of heart rate and breathing leading to coma or death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), leg movements.

Pain relievers with an origin similar to that of heroin. Opioids can cause euphoria and are often used nonmedically, leading to overdose deaths.

Street Name: Apache, China Girl, China White, Dance Fever, Friend, Goodfella, Jackpot, Murder 8, Tango and Cash, TNT
Commercial Names: Fentanyl (Actiq®, Duragesic®, Sublimaze®)
Common Forms: Lozenge, sublingual tablet, film, buccal tablet
Common Ways Taken: Injected, smoked, snorted

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Pain relief, drowsiness, nausea, constipation, euphoria, confusion, slowed breathing, death.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Pregnancy: Miscarriage, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome. Older adults: higher risk of accidental misuse or abuse because many older adults have multiple prescriptions, increasing the risk of drug-drug interactions, and breakdown of drugs slows with age; also, many older adults are treated with prescription medications for pain. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Dangerous slowing of heart rate and breathing leading to coma or death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), leg movements.

Pain relievers with an origin similar to that of heroin. Opioids can cause euphoria and are often used nonmedically, leading to overdose deaths.

Street Name: Vike, Watson-387
Commercial Names: Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone (Vicodin®, Lortab®, Lorcet®, and others)
Common Forms: Capsule, liquid, tablet
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, snorted, injected

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Pain relief, drowsiness, nausea, constipation, euphoria, confusion, slowed breathing, death.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Pregnancy: Miscarriage, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome. Older adults: higher risk of accidental misuse or abuse because many older adults have multiple prescriptions, increasing the risk of drug-drug interactions, and breakdown of drugs slows with age; also, many older adults are treated with prescription medications for pain. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Dangerous slowing of heart rate and breathing leading to coma or death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), leg movements.

Pain relievers with an origin similar to that of heroin. Opioids can cause euphoria and are often used nonmedically, leading to overdose deaths.

Street Name: D, Dillies, Footballs, Juice, Smack
Commercial Names: Hydromorphone (Dilaudid®)
Common Forms: Liquid, suppository
Common Ways Taken: Injected, rectal

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Pain relief, drowsiness, nausea, constipation, euphoria, confusion, slowed breathing, death.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Pregnancy: Miscarriage, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome. Older adults: higher risk of accidental misuse or abuse because many older adults have multiple prescriptions, increasing the risk of drug-drug interactions, and breakdown of drugs slows with age; also, many older adults are treated with prescription medications for pain. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Dangerous slowing of heart rate and breathing leading to coma or death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), leg movements.

Pain relievers with an origin similar to that of heroin. Opioids can cause euphoria and are often used nonmedically, leading to overdose deaths.

Street Name: Amidone, Fizzies With MDMA: Chocolate Chip Cookies
Commercial Names: Methadone (Dolophine®, Methadose®)
Common Forms: Tablet, dispersible tablet, liquid
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, injected

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Pain relief, drowsiness, nausea, constipation, euphoria, confusion, slowed breathing, death.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Pregnancy: Miscarriage, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome. Older adults: higher risk of accidental misuse or abuse because many older adults have multiple prescriptions, increasing the risk of drug-drug interactions, and breakdown of drugs slows with age; also, many older adults are treated with prescription medications for pain. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Dangerous slowing of heart rate and breathing leading to coma or death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), leg movements.

Pain relievers with an origin similar to that of heroin. Opioids can cause euphoria and are often used nonmedically, leading to overdose deaths.

Street Name: Amidone, Fizzies With MDMA: Chocolate Chip Cookies
Commercial Names: Methadone (Dolophine®, Methadose®)
Common Forms: Tablet, dispersible tablet, liquid
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, injected

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Pain relief, drowsiness, nausea, constipation, euphoria, confusion, slowed breathing, death.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Pregnancy: Miscarriage, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome. Older adults: higher risk of accidental misuse or abuse because many older adults have multiple prescriptions, increasing the risk of drug-drug interactions, and breakdown of drugs slows with age; also, many older adults are treated with prescription medications for pain. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Dangerous slowing of heart rate and breathing leading to coma or death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), leg movements.

Pain relievers with an origin similar to that of heroin. Opioids can cause euphoria and are often used nonmedically, leading to overdose deaths.

Street Name: M, Miss Emma, Monkey, White Stuff
Commercial Names: Morphine (Duramorph®, Roxanol®)
Common Forms: Tablet, liquid, capsule, suppository
Common Ways Taken: Injected, swallowed, smoked

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Pain relief, drowsiness, nausea, constipation, euphoria, confusion, slowed breathing, death.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Pregnancy: Miscarriage, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome. Older adults: higher risk of accidental misuse or abuse because many older adults have multiple prescriptions, increasing the risk of drug-drug interactions, and breakdown of drugs slows with age; also, many older adults are treated with prescription medications for pain. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Dangerous slowing of heart rate and breathing leading to coma or death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), leg movements.

Pain relievers with an origin similar to that of heroin. Opioids can cause euphoria and are often used nonmedically, leading to overdose deaths.

Street Name: O.C., Oxycet, Oxycotton, Oxy, Hillbilly Heroin, Percs
Commercial Names: Oxycodone (OxyContin®, Percodan®, Percocet®, and others)
Common Forms: Capsule, liquid, tablet
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, snorted, injected

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Pain relief, drowsiness, nausea, constipation, euphoria, confusion, slowed breathing, death.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Pregnancy: Miscarriage, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome. Older adults: higher risk of accidental misuse or abuse because many older adults have multiple prescriptions, increasing the risk of drug-drug interactions, and breakdown of drugs slows with age; also, many older adults are treated with prescription medications for pain. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Dangerous slowing of heart rate and breathing leading to coma or death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), leg movements.

Pain relievers with an origin similar to that of heroin. Opioids can cause euphoria and are often used nonmedically, leading to overdose deaths.

Street Name: Biscuits, Blue Heaven, Blues, Mrs. O, O Bomb, Octagons, Stop Signs
Commercial Names: Oxymorphone (Opana®)
Common Forms: Tablet
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, snorted, injected

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Pain relief, drowsiness, nausea, constipation, euphoria, confusion, slowed breathing, death.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Pregnancy: Miscarriage, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome. Older adults: higher risk of accidental misuse or abuse because many older adults have multiple prescriptions, increasing the risk of drug-drug interactions, and breakdown of drugs slows with age; also, many older adults are treated with prescription medications for pain. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Dangerous slowing of heart rate and breathing leading to coma or death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), leg movements.

Medications that slow brain activity, which makes them useful for treating anxiety and sleep problems.

Street Name: Barbs, Phennies, Red Birds, Reds, Tooies, Yellow Jackets, Yellows
Commercial Names: Barbiturates: pentobarbital (Nembutal®), phenobarbital (Luminal®)
Common Forms: Pill, capsule, liquid
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, injected

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Drowsiness, slurred speech, poor concentration, confusion, dizziness, problems with movement and memory, lowered blood pressure, slowed breathing.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Sleep medications are sometimes used as date rape drugs. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Further slows heart rate and breathing, which can lead to death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Must be discussed with a health care provider; barbiturate withdrawal can cause a serious abstinence syndrome that may even include seizures.

Medications that slow brain activity, which makes them useful for treating anxiety and sleep problems.

Street Name: Candy, Downers, Sleeping Pills, Tranks
Commercial Names: Benzodiazepines: alprazolam (Xanax®), chlorodiazepoxide (Limbitrol®), diazepam (Valium®), lorazepam (Ativan®), triazolam (Halicon®)
Common Forms: Pill, capsule, liquid
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, injected

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Drowsiness, slurred speech, poor concentration, confusion, dizziness, problems with movement and memory, lowered blood pressure, slowed breathing.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Sleep medications are sometimes used as date rape drugs. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Further slows heart rate and breathing, which can lead to death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Must be discussed with a health care provider; barbiturate withdrawal can cause a serious abstinence syndrome that may even include seizures.

Medications that slow brain activity, which makes them useful for treating anxiety and sleep problems.

Street Name: Forget-me Pill, Mexican Valium, R2, Roche, Roofies, Roofinol, Rope, Rophies
Commercial Names: Sleep Medications: eszopiclone (Lunesta®), zaleplon (Sonata®), zolpidem (Ambien®)
Common Forms: Pill, capsule, liquid
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, injected

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Drowsiness, slurred speech, poor concentration, confusion, dizziness, problems with movement and memory, lowered blood pressure, slowed breathing.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Sleep medications are sometimes used as date rape drugs. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Further slows heart rate and breathing, which can lead to death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Must be discussed with a health care provider; barbiturate withdrawal can cause a serious abstinence syndrome that may even include seizures.

Medications that increase alertness, attention, energy, blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing rate.

Street Name: Bennies, Black Beauties, Crosses, Hearts, LA Turnaround, Speed, Truck Drivers, Uppers
Commercial Names: Amphetamine (Adderall®, Benzedrine®)
Common Forms: Tablet, capsule
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, snorted, smoked, injected

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Increased alertness, attention, energy; increased blood pressure and heart rate; narrowed blood vessels; increased blood sugar; opened-up breathing passages. High doses: dangerously high body temperature and irregular heartbeat; heart failure; seizures.

Long-term: Heart problems, psychosis, anger, paranoia.

Other Health-related Issues: Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Masks the depressant action of alcohol, increasing risk of alcohol overdose; may increase blood pressure and jitters.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Depression, tiredness, sleep problems.

Medications that increase alertness, attention, energy, blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing rate.

Street Name: JIF, MPH, R-ball, Skippy, The Smart Drug, Vitamin R
Commercial Names: Methylphenidate (Concerta®, Ritalin®)
Common Forms: Liquid, tablet, chewable tablet, capsule
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, snorted, smoked, injected, chewed

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Increased alertness, attention, energy; increased blood pressure and heart rate; narrowed blood vessels; increased blood sugar; opened-up breathing passages. High doses: dangerously high body temperature and irregular heartbeat; heart failure; seizures.

Long-term: Heart problems, psychosis, anger, paranoia.

Other Health-related Issues: Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Masks the depressant action of alcohol, increasing risk of alcohol overdose; may increase blood pressure and jitters.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Depression, tiredness, sleep problems.

A hallucinogen in certain types of mushroom. Popular drug for Australian travellers to Bali.

Street Name: Little Smoke, Magic Mushrooms, Purple Passion, Shrooms
Commercial Names: No commercial uses
Common Forms: Fresh or dried mushrooms with long, slender stems topped by caps with dark gills
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed (eaten, brewed as tea, or added to other foods)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Hallucinations, altered perception of time, inability to tell fantasy from reality, panic, muscle relaxation or weakness, problems with movement, enlarged pupils, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness.

Long-term: Risk of flashbacks and memory problems.

Other Health-related Issues: Risk of poisoning if a poisonous mushroom is accidentally used.

In Combination with Alcohol: May decrease the perceived effects of alcohol.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Unknown.

A benzodiazepine chemically similar to prescription sedatives such as Valium® and Xanax®. Teens and young adults tend to abuse this drug at bars, nightclubs, concerts, and parties. It has been used to commit sexual assaults due to its ability to sedate and incapacitate unsuspecting victims.

Street Name: Circles, Date Rape Drug, Forget Pill, Forget-Me Pill, La Rocha, Lunch Money, Mexican Valium, Mind Eraser, Pingus, R2, Reynolds, Rib, Roach, Roach 2, Roaches, Roachies, Roapies, Rochas Dos, Roofies, Rope, Rophies, Row-Shay, Ruffies, Trip-and-Fall, Wolfies
Commercial Names: Flunitrazepam, Rohypnol®
Common Forms: Tablet
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed (as a pill or as dissolved in a drink), snorted

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Drowsiness, sedation, sleep; amnesia, blackout; decreased anxiety; muscle relaxation, impaired reaction time and motor coordination; impaired mental functioning and judgment; confusion; aggression; excitability; slurred speech; headache; slowed breathing and heart rate.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Unknown.

In Combination with Alcohol: Severe sedation, unconsciousness, and slowed heart rate and breathing, which can lead to death.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Headache; muscle pain; extreme anxiety, tension, restlessness, confusion, irritability; numbness and tingling of hands or feet; hallucinations, delirium, convulsions, seizures, or shock.

Man-made substances used to treat conditions caused by low levels of steroid hormones in the body and abused to enhance athletic and sexual performance and physical appearance.

Street Name: Juice, Gym Candy, Pumpers, Roids
Commercial Names: Nandrolone (Oxandrin®), oxandrolone (Anadrol®), oxymetholone (Winstrol®), stanozolol (Durabolin®), testosterone cypionate (Depo-testosterone®)
Common Forms: Tablet, capsule, liquid drops, gel, cream, patch, injectable solution
Common Ways Taken: Injected, swallowed, applied to skin

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Headache, acne, fluid retention (especially in the hands and feet), oily skin, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, infection at the injection site.

Long-term: Kidney damage or failure; liver damage; high blood pressure, enlarged heart, or changes in cholesterol leading to increased risk of stroke or heart attack, even in young people; aggression; extreme mood swings; anger (“roid rage”); paranoid jealousy; extreme irritability; delusions; impaired judgment.

Other Health-related Issues: Males: shrunken testicles, lowered sperm count, infertility, baldness, development of breasts, increased risk for prostate cancer. Females: facial hair, male-pattern baldness, menstrual cycle changes, enlargement of the clitoris, deepened voice. Adolescents: stunted growth. Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Increased risk of violent behaviour.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Mood swings; tiredness; restlessness; loss of appetite; insomnia; lowered sex drive; depression, sometimes leading to suicide attempts.

A wide variety of herbal mixtures containing man-made cannabinoid chemicals related to THC in marijuana but often much stronger and more dangerous. Sometimes misleadingly called “synthetic marijuana” and marketed as a “natural,” "safe," legal alternative to marijuana.

Street Name: K2, Spice, Black Mamba, Bliss, Bombay Blue, Fake Weed, Fire, Genie, Moon Rocks, Skunk, Smacked, Yucatan, Zohai
Commercial Names: No commercial uses
Common Forms: Dried, shredded plant material that looks like potpourri and is sometimes sold as “incense”
Common Ways Taken: Smoked, swallowed (brewed as tea)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Increased heart rate; vomiting; agitation; confusion; hallucinations, anxiety, paranoia; increased blood pressure and reduced blood supply to the heart; heart attack.

Long-term: Unknown.

Other Health-related Issues: Use of synthetic cannabinoids has led to an increase in emergency room visits in certain areas.

In Combination with Alcohol: Unknown.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Headaches, anxiety, depression, irritability.

An emerging family of drugs containing one or more synthetic chemicals related to cathinone, a stimulant found naturally in the khat plant. Examples of such chemicals include mephedrone, methylone, and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV).

Street Name: Bloom, Cloud Nine, Cosmic Blast, Flakka, Ivory Wave, Lunar Wave, Scarface, Vanilla Sky, White Lightning
Commercial Names: No commercial uses for ingested "bath salts"
Common Forms: White or brown crystalline powder sold in small plastic or foil packages labeled "not for human consumption" and sometimes sold as jewelry cleaner; tablet, capsule, liquid
Common Ways Taken: Swallowed, snorted, injected

Possible Health Effects

Short-term: Increased heart rate and blood pressure; euphoria; increased sociability and sex drive; paranoia, agitation, and hallucinations; psychotic and violent behavior; nosebleeds; sweating; nausea, vomiting; insomnia; irritability; dizziness; depression; suicidal thoughts; panic attacks; reduced motor control; cloudy thinking.

Long-term: Breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue; kidney failure; death.

Other Health-related Issues: Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.

In Combination with Alcohol: Unknown.

Withdrawal Symptoms: Depression, anxiety, problems sleeping, tremors, paranoia.